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    人類的千年奇跡:京杭大運河與隋唐大運河是母子!

    2016-06-05 13:16 來源:獵奇吧編輯整理 作者:佚名

    隋唐大運河,是中國的驕傲。雖然我們的運輸已經極少用到漕運,但是隋唐大運河仍值得被我們記起,因為它曾推動過中國的交通運輸。然而,在中國的運河中,大家都熟悉京杭大運河,極少人熟悉隋唐大運河,今天,讓我們一起了解一下前者。

    隋唐大運河與京杭大運河

    中國運河有兩個系統:一個叫京杭大運河,另一個叫隋唐大運河。它們倆是兩個完全不同的運河,時間不同,地理不同,總之,雖然都叫大運河,但基本上是兩個不同的概念和系統。迄今為止,許多人都弄不懂,一提中國大運河,就以為是京杭大運河,根本不知道還有一個什么隋唐大運河。

    回首千年隋唐大運河

    京杭大運河的稱謂,是元朝以來以北京為首都的裁彎取直改道后形成的運河,其稱謂是元朝以后的運河。但在大運河的整個形成期間,僅是一個歷史階段,也即大運河的最后階段。

    京杭大運河開鑿的初始階段:為公元前486年的東周春秋末期。當時統治長江下游一帶的吳王夫差,為了北上伐齊,爭奪中原霸主地位,調集民工,開挖了自今揚州向東北,經射陽到淮安入淮河的運河。引長江水入淮河,溝通了長江、淮河兩大河流,全長170公里,成為大運河最早修建的一段。因途經邗城,故得名“邗溝”。

    公元587年,隋為興兵伐陳,統一中國,從今淮安至揚州,開山陽瀆。后又采取中間不再繞道射陽湖的取直整治。

    大運河的形成階段,也是最重要的階段,是隋煬帝時期開鑿的大運河。

    隋滅陳完成中國統一,繼隋煬帝楊廣即位,為鞏固國家統一,更好的控制江南地區,使長江三角洲地區豐富的物資為中央政府掌握,更由于隋中央政府對江淮經濟的依賴,隋煬帝下令開鑿大運河。

    隋煬帝開鑿大運河,始于公元605年。公元604年,隋煬帝楊廣離開京都長安,到洛陽考察。605年即力排眾議,下令著手兩項重大工程:一是將首都由長安遷往洛陽;二是征調民工百萬,由杰出工程專家宇文愷主持,開鑿大運河。主要是開通通濟渠和永濟渠。

    通濟渠公元605年開鑿。分東西兩段:西段自今洛陽西郊引洛河和谷水入黃河;東段自滎陽汜水,引黃河后,循汴水(原淮河支流),經商丘、宿縣、泗縣入淮河。

    永濟渠公元608年開鑿。利用沁河、淇水、衛河水源,引水通航至天津,繼溯永定河通涿郡(今北京)。610年,繼開江南運河。開通鎮江至杭州段,長400公里。這樣,從首都洛陽到江都、到浙江杭州全長1700公里的河道,可以直通船舶,暢行無阻。

    隋唐大運河遺址

    至此,以首都洛陽為中心,以通濟渠、永濟渠為“人”字狀兩大撇捺延伸,并通過邗溝和江南河,溝通了海河、黃河、淮河、長江、錢塘江五大河流。北通涿郡(今北京),南達余杭(今杭州),主航道全長2700公里,溝通中國南北和東部、中部的水運大動脈已經形成。

    而在這條水運大動脈中位于洛陽盆地的洛河,則有著特別重要的意義,她是這條大動脈的核心,隋都洛陽最重要的交通樞紐和御河。同時也是千年古都洛陽之御河。

    隋唐大運河開通后,隋煬帝行幸江都,即俗說的“下揚州觀瓊花”:“發顯仁宮,出洛口,御龍舟。舟四重,高45尺,長200尺。上重有大殿、朝堂,中二重有房百二十間,皆飾以金玉沉檀。挽船士八萬人,美女九千人,皆以錦繡之采,艷麗奪目,舳艫相接二百余里。”

    到了武則天大足元年(公元701年),在洛陽立德坊南,營建新潭(今大營村南):“天下舟船所集,常萬余艘,填河路,商旅貿易,車馬填塞。”那時,“半天下之財賦,悉由此路而進,”在洛河上是“漕船往來,千里不絕”。

    由于隋唐大運河的通航,促進了中國南北經濟的溝通和交流,促進了沿岸經濟的繁榮和城市的興起,運河沿岸逐漸形成了名城蘇州和杭州,造船工業基地鎮江和無錫,對外貿易港口揚州、江都等重要城市。

    北宋時期,首都在開封,洛陽為西京。洛河水運仍很發達,是洛陽、陜西、河東向汴梁運貨的交通樞紐。

    元代以后,國都變遷到北京。隨著國家政治、經濟中心的轉移,航運的目標也由洛陽轉到了北京,元代便對大運河進行了裁彎取直的大改道,縮短航運里程九百公里,形成了自元代以來的“京杭大運河”,并留下了“流成的杭州,漂來的北京”的佳話。而作為國家“交公糧”的“洛河漕運”逐漸衰退,但伊洛河的地方貨運依然旺盛。直到二十世紀五十年代初期,洛河上依舊是桅檣如林,伊河上仍然是舟楫如梭。

    京杭大運河是世界上里程最長、工程最大的運河。北起北京(涿郡),南到杭州(余杭),經北京、天津兩市及河北、山東、江蘇、浙江四省,貫通海河、黃河、淮河、長江、錢塘江五大水系,全長約1774公里,開鑿到現在已有785年的歷史。京杭運河對中國南北地區之間的經濟、文化發展與交流,特別是對沿線地區工農業經濟的發展和城鎮的興起均起了巨大作用。京杭大運河也是最古老的運河之一。它和萬里長城并稱為我國古代的兩項偉大工程,聞名于全世界。

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