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    燕云十六州:石敬瑭拱手相讓

    2016-06-05 13:30 來源:獵奇吧編輯整理 作者:佚名

      契丹皇帝耶律德光御駕親征,不但為石敬瑭解了太原之圍,而且幫助他一舉平滅后唐,建立后晉,自己做上了皇帝。而作為報答,后晉向契丹稱臣,兩國結為父子之邦,行父子之禮,同時向契丹割讓燕云十六州。因此,石敬瑭得到了“兒皇帝”和“賣國賊”千年罵名。


    石敬瑭

      公元936年春夏之交,駐扎在太原的后唐帝國河東節度使石敬瑭,終于跟他名義上的小舅子——皇帝李從珂鬧到了徹底翻臉的地步。跟皇帝翻臉就意味著造反,后果當然很嚴重:他的親弟、堂弟、兩個兒子在首都洛陽被殺,而皇帝派出的數萬征討大軍正從各路撲向太原。

      以石敬瑭的兵力是根本無法與后唐大軍對抗的,情勢看起來十分危急。但石敬瑭并沒有驚慌,他是提前想好了應對之策才撕破臉皮的,而且他的計劃還不只是抵御后唐的進攻,他要滅唐自立——當然不是靠自身的力量,而是靠契丹的幫助。

      計劃順利實現,契丹皇帝耶律德光御駕親征,不但為石敬瑭解了太原之圍,而且幫助他一舉平滅后唐,建立后晉,自己做上了皇帝。而作為報答,后晉向契丹稱臣,兩國結為父子之邦,行父子之禮,同時向契丹割讓燕云十六州。

      石敬瑭由此成為了整個中國歷史上最臭名昭著的人物之一,千百年來一直是“兒皇帝”和“賣國賊”的最佳形象代言人。其實,更客觀公平地來看,在五 代亂世,一切僭越亂倫皆已司空見慣,石敬瑭身為沙陀人(西突厥的一支別部),所侍奉過的后唐三姓四任皇帝中,就兩次出現兄弟間反目成仇、興兵奪位的情況, 所以于他而言,帝夢心切者不擇手段取之,沒什么不能接受的。甘愿認賊為父確實無恥,但今人指責他“置國家民族的利益于不顧”,也實在是有些要求過高了。

      事實上,中原王朝即使是在強盛如漢唐的時代,也都出現過對外族稱臣、和親或納貢的情況。漢初在軍事上無力與匈奴對抗,自高祖劉邦起便靠著與匈奴 和親來避免戰爭(實為變相進貢),和親政策歷經文景二賢,直到漢武大帝劉徹在位十多年以后才廢止;唐高祖李淵及唐太宗李世民也是靠著向突厥稱臣才得以創建 帝業;而唐肅宗為了向回紇借兵,以從安祿山的叛軍手中收復京都,更與回紇簽訂過“克城之日,土地士庶歸唐、金帛女子皆歸回紇”的恥辱條約。石敬瑭遺臭萬年 的重要原因在于他的后晉帝國太過短命,根本沒有機會在治史時通過“技術處理”來掩蓋污點,而他割讓燕云十六州之舉,對后世的影響又實在太大,在此后至少四 百年時間里直接改變了中原王朝的命運,自然不容易被后人忘記。

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